Episode 54: What Should I Do After Taking Antibiotics?
One of the questions we get asked most frequently is what to do to re-balance the gut after taking antibiotics, so we’re re-airing a past episode with Aubrey Levitt that looks at this question.
Aubrey is the co-founder of The Postbiotics+, a company developing clinically tested, effective microbiome therapies to use alongside other medications to protect the gut, prevent pathogens from invading and reduce antibiotic resistance genes.
If you’re a long-time listener, you’ve heard us talk about metabolites, also called postbiotics, and this episode dives into their benefits in helping the gut bounce back after attack.
Though it sounds fancy, metabolites are simply the byproducts made by the bacteria and fungi in our guts. In essence, postbiotics are the waste products that are excreted from our microbial friends.
Only unlike our poo, these “waste” products don’t go to waste within our body. Rather, they could the key to some of the biggest questions surrounding the microbiome.
On this episode, Aubrey joins Andrea to talk about how postbiotics are reshaping the way we think about our microbial colonies and the impact they have on our immune system.
Since we last spoke to her, Aubrey’s co-founder, Jonas Schluter, recently released a paper in Nature that is the first to connect the gut microbiome to immune dynamics in humans. Check it out here: The gut microbiota is associated with immune cell dynamics in humans.
To stay in the loop with Aubrey’s research, head to postbioticsplus.com. Her "My Custom Herbs" business is getting a reboot, so we'll link to information on it here when it's available in the next few weeks.
On this show:
- Trying to figure out how we become more resilient to stress (4:32)
- What questions Aubrey’s microbiome start-up is trying to answer (7:44)
- The differences between pre-, pro-, and postbiotics (10:56)
- Ways to increase our levels of postbiotics (17:34)
- Best way to re-populate your gut after a round of antibiotics (19:47)
- Actionable steps that you can take today (26:14)
Andrea Wien: Welcome to the Microbiome Report powered by BIOHM Health. I'm your host, Andrea Wien. Since you're listening to the show, you've likely heard about pre and probiotics. But what about postbiotics? No, we're not trying to confuse you. They're also called metabolites and postbiotics are the byproducts of probiotics. You can think like the trash that the probiotics are leaving behind. But these things can have profound impacts on our health.
On this episode, I'm talking to Aubrey Levitt, Co-Founder of the Postbiotics Plus, a microbiome startup that's researching how these metabolites can deepen our understanding of how the body works with our microbes. In a winding conversation, we discuss how postbiotics differ from their more well known cousins, pre and probiotics, how drugs other than antibiotics can impact the microbiome and what she's hoping to accomplish with her work in the coming months and years. This is really on the cutting edge of the microbiome research that's coming out, so I really hope you'll enjoy the show. Aubrey, welcome to the show.
Aubrey Levitt: Thank you. Thank you for having me. It's a pleasure.
Andrea Wien: So to get started, tell me about what you do and how you came to this work of microbes.
Aubrey Levitt: Well, God it's been a long road, but I basically have a microbiome startup and we are studying postbiotics, which essentially are like the downstream effects of the bacteria in your gut. So what they create that keep you healthy or can also make you sick. And essentially, I work with a bunch of scientists and right now we're in the research phase where we're studying how the microbiome works, how this ecosystem interacts with each other. And for me, I'm not a scientist. I actually have a background in advertising and creative writing. And I came down this road just through my own personal health journey. I became obsessed with this question of how we could build resiliency to stress. And this idea, I had been exploring a lot of things in health and wellness for my own health challenges, but what I kept coming back to was this issue that when I would get stressed, even remotely stressed, and it could be positive stress, like a great thing would happen or negative stress like work.
And I would immediately fall off any track, health wise. And that looked like, when it comes to hormones, those going out of balance where you lose a menstrual cycle, when it comes to gut, gut issues, the gamut of those. So I was always looking for, okay, how do you build up the body so that it's more resilient, can bounce back rather than being knocked totally off kilter. And just to give you a little bit of background, I think why that was such a prominent issue in my life was, really early on in a young age, six months old, had a traumatic event happened that I only found out about a couple of years ago. But it was someone had broken into the house when I was a baby with a gun. And a nanny came and grabbed me and ran next door.
But the result of that was, all through childhood, I had this fight or flight response that was very extreme where I wasn't sleeping, I wasn't eating. I was always watching the window and door at night to see if an intruder was coming in, not even knowing about this incident. But I was on hyper-vigilance awareness of all sensory aspects that really affected my health and made me consequently sick a lot. Probably every other week I was in the hospital with 105 fever, receiving a dose of antibiotics. And then by the time I was eight, I was in the hospital for, I think about two weeks, for puncturing a lung and had to be on antibiotics the entire time I was in there. So if you add that all up, it was this perfect cocktail for a really depleted adrenal and just system in general.
Andrea Wien: Yeah. I really resonate a lot with that bouncing back and not being able to get back on track. I remember going to a functional medicine doctor years ago and saying, it just seems like no matter what, even if it's something good, I go to a great event or I go to a conference or I go on a vacation, whatever it is, it takes me so long to get back to baseline. So I totally hear what you're saying about trying to figure out how we become more resilient to stress.
Aubrey Levitt: Yep. And I think these days it's even more prominent, right? I think with all the additives we have in our food with the food and water supply and the medications, I mean, it just seems like this problem is rampant. People are ongoing just having constant issues and not able to bounce back as well. So that's sort of what I became got to the root of because I luckily had all the resources at my fingertips. I had a family that I grew up in that was very big into alternative medicine. So I was aware from an early age of not only everything to try from like juicing to herbs, to also mental approach of meditation, yoga. All of that, I implemented and it was part of my vocabulary growing up, which was very lucky. So I had all those tools and was still struggling with what I couldn't overcome, which was this resiliency factor.
Andrea Wien: So have you made progress on that then? Have you transcended the stress question?
Aubrey Levitt: Yeah. So that's what led me down this path, which was interesting is I was in LA at the time coming out of doing a ton of cleanses. And again, they would have a tremendous effect, but it would only last for a certain amount of time. And I started working with herbs, launched a first company that was tonics and elixirs. And I still wasn't getting the results. So I ended up taking one of these herbal formulas and through people I met along the way, we fermented them with probiotics, and I started taking that. And the reason I got interested in the microbiome was, what I first noticed was the sense of balance that I hadn't experienced before. And it was only then that I realized how extreme that rat race had been for me of always having to fit in all of these things to keep that balance intact, or at least within reach.
I'm a skeptic by nature, so I won't say that the formula necessarily was what caused that, but it sent me down this path of researching what effect it could have had and how the microbiome plays into this. Because I think I came from the head space if I should be able to overcome all of this with meditation, diet and lifestyle, and I was failing at that. So when I started researching it, we started looking at, oh, wow, there's these great things that are produced through fermentation that could affect mood and stress like GABA and dopamine. And then we looked further at, okay, what causes the destruction of the microbiome, and then what are these other metabolites that need to be replaced to possibly get the system operating again so that this doesn't happen. So yes, I've made tremendous progress. It's still probably a lot to learn and ways to go, but that's exactly what we're researching.
Andrea Wien: So you mentioned the research that you're doing and you have this microbiome startup. And I think for many people, those two words don't really go together yet. There's not a lot of people doing microbiome business work yet. It's a lot of research, it's a lot of people talking about certain things. So talk me through, what does your day-to-day look like? What questions are you really trying to answer?
Aubrey Levitt: So we actually, I guess in some ways we're still doing research, so it may be more of a research, less of a startup in that sense. But what we did initially was I work with the scientists at a couple of different institutions and also in Europe. And we actually took some, this first basic formula and went straight to some clinics in Texas. I happen to know someone that owns some emergency rooms. So we wanted to say really grounded in the science. So we went in and actually thought, okay, what do we know about the microbiome? The only thing we really know is that antibiotics destroy it. And there are some negative side effects from that. There are some positive, initially, and some negatives.
So we went in and said, okay, if we give somebody postbiotics or this fermented product, in addition to probiotics, because we found that those two work well together, we wanted to see if we could help their microbiome stay intact or recover more quickly after a round of antibiotics. So I went around and actually collected stool samples from a lot of people that were coming in and having to take a round of antibiotics, which I found out that I'm very good at apparently getting people to donate stool samples. I never would have known, I mean that this was my calling and perhaps my best skill. So now we know.
Andrea Wien: Look at that skill that you never would have discovered.
Aubrey Levitt: So what we found from the clinic was that actually we were able to help the microbiome maintain diversity better than leading probiotics. So that was really exciting. That was our first taste into, okay, do we have something here? And now the day-to-day is really looking like we're gearing up for our next study, because we want to look at that closer and look at if we can actually tie microbiome health to clinical outcomes. And then there's the average startup stuff of meeting with investors, making distribution deals for when we get done with these studies, basic things like that.
Andrea Wien: So just to make sure I'm understanding. So you went in and took stool samples, analyzed the microbiome, and then these people went on a round of antibiotics and then you supplemented them with both probiotics and postbiotics, and saw that that was a better way to go and to increase diversity than just probiotics alone.
Aubrey Levitt: Well, yes, but not in that order. So we couldn't go in and ask people to get sick or take antibiotics. So they were already coming in and being given a round of antibiotics. And then we gave them the product or the control. And it was a blind, double blind placebo study. And the control was the top probiotic. And then the product was the fermented herbs and the probiotic. And then we took stool samples along the way.
Andrea Wien: And let's take a step back because I think we're throwing around this term postbiotic. You mentioned metabolite earlier. Can you define what that is? Because I think people are just starting to wrap their heads around, okay, we have probiotics, everyone for the most part has a basic understanding of what those are. Now prebiotics may or may not be in someone's psyche and they might understand what that is or not. And then now we have postbiotics so we're throwing a lot of terms out. So can you just talk about how those three differ?
Aubrey Levitt: So probiotics are the live bacteria, so those are in your gut, but then they're also found in yogurts and their the live cells like lactobacillus that people are very familiar with. And we know that when they're living in your gut, they do some great things, right? So prebiotics are the fiber. So if you imagine you eat this fiber and the fiber that you can't digest, your bacteria will digest and create the good things that your body needs, right?
So both of those are dependent on each other. So if you put the fiber in and let's say you don't have the microbiome to break it down, you may or may not get the benefit. And then if you put the probiotics in, the bacteria, may or may not have a benefit because it has to be active, right? It has to eat something and interact with whatever else is in your gut. So postbiotics are essentially what the bacteria create. So if you're giving the bacteria fiber, they create things like vitamins and minerals, neurotransmitters, short chain fatty acids. I think people have probably heard of butyrate, which supports the gut lining and all of these beneficial things, the list goes on. Those are the postbiotics, what the bacteria create, when they eat certain fibers.
Andrea Wien: So essentially, we could think about it as the waste products, like it's this bacteria's trash is our treasure, in a lot of ways, right?
Aubrey Levitt: That's exactly what it is. Postbiotics, I guess can also be the negative things that affect our health. Right? If you eat a very high meat or high fat diet, it creates a metabolite that can cause inflammation. So it depends on what you're feeding them, essentially. And all this is happening in your gut. And what we're looking at is taking it out of the gut and using it from a supplementation side.
Andrea Wien: Okay. So you're looking at some very specific postbiotics because there's, I have to imagine, hundreds.
Aubrey Levitt: Oh, there's tons, yes. There's tons, I would say thousands and thousands. Yeah. We are looking at specific ones, but initially we are looking at a more complex mixture of metabolites just through a fermentation when we specifically ferment herbs. So one of the cool things about herbs is they also have their own benefits. And when you ferment them, they have metabolites as well. And what tends to happen usually is they become more active and have a stronger effect. And also, sometimes when herbs have what the nutrition worlds calls anti-nutrients, that's not the same in scientific world, but when they have sort of toxins, those are reduced a lot of times through fermentation. So you get the best of both worlds, typically.
Andrea Wien: Are you fermenting the herbs in their whole form or are you guys creating tinctures? How are people taking this?
Aubrey Levitt: We're fermenting them in their whole form, and then we're powdering it and putting it in the capsule.
Andrea Wien: Okay. And is there the same issue of a probiotic where maybe it doesn't survive through the acid in the stomach, or is that eliminated with this? Because technically it's not a live product.
Aubrey Levitt: Yep. So that's the great thing is it doesn't really matter. So some of them can be, I guess, volatile, meaning you have to worry about if they disappear, but it doesn't matter if they're live. And they've been shown to have a lot of the same effects as live bacteria. So that's the gold in some of these metabolites is that they don't have to be live, so they have better storage conditions, easier to produce and a lot of other things when it comes to production.
Andrea Wien: And how have you started to see these postbiotics impacting the immune system, for example?
Aubrey Levitt: Yeah, the immune system is tricky. So we know they do, but it's understanding what markers to look for. And that's something we're still looking into is what are the biomarkers in the clinic, and in our next study that we're prepping for now, actually, we're taking the same patient population of if they've taken antibiotics and seeing if we can help reduce secondary infections. So that would be how it would affect the immune system. We're also putting it into a gut model right now to look at that. But it's a bit tricky because there's not necessarily biomarkers that we know yet that have been identified that we want to look at. So hopefully this next larger study I'm looking at, if we can reduce secondary infection, will give some insight.
Andrea Wien: And in just your anecdotal experience with your own health, and then looking at the people who you've run these trials on, what real world symptoms have diminished or what experiences have they had that have been for the positive?
Aubrey Levitt: Yes. So specifically with antibiotics, we've seen that if they typically get a loose stool or something that happens often when you take antibiotics, that isn't occurring and they're not maybe getting the yeast infections that typically happen when you take antibiotics. So that's some good early anecdotal evidence, is that this idea. So my co-founder likes to explain it like another way you can talk about postbiotics are they're signaling molecules. So these bacteria communicate with each other, right? So if you put in this mixture of signaling molecules, that alerts the rest of the community to be on the defensive. So they don't think that there's maybe an opportunistic situation so they can overgrow. So if you think of that in terms of a yeast infection and it's like, okay, if nobody's home, then whatever's opportunistic may take over and proliferate, versus if you have all these complex signaling molecules that you're putting in, it's going to give the body the protection because it's going to think that somebody's home essentially
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So obviously we have a microbiome at work in us. And I guess if we're looking at just the general population, maybe someone who hasn't taken antibiotics in a while, but is still struggling, like you were, with some outstanding health conditions, even though they're quote unquote, doing everything right, are there ways to increase the levels of helpful postbiotics in your system? Are there certain foods, for example, that are better than others or certain things that you can do to ramp up your natural production?
Aubrey Levitt: I mean, yes and no. So fermented foods obviously have been around in almost every culture from a food stability standpoint. But yeah, eating fermented foods, I guess it can always be really helpful unless somebody has a histamine issue or I guess the trick there is you don't know what bacteria were in it, so it's less controlled of a situation. But in general, fermented foods tend to be really good for us and contain a lot of these helpful postbiotics.
But the exciting thing too, that we don't know yet, but this is part of what we're looking into by understanding the relationship is that when you put certain postbiotics into your system, it can also, when you combine them with probiotics, for example, it can trigger an effect to where even if you have some dysbiosis that has been long-term, which is the really hard thing to correct, some of the research shows that it makes it easier for a new microbiome community to take over. So therefore, even when you're normally just going in with probiotics or with food, a lot of times the results are pretty limited on if your dysbiosis has been around for a long time and really strong because the inertia of that population is the norm. So that's the exciting thing about a lot of this research is that putting in certain metabolites can help tip that balance back to what you want it to be. But that's very new research, so we're not quite there yet to understand which postbiotics do that exactly.
Andrea Wien: Yeah. And we always want to remind people on the show that all of this is so new, even the study of prebiotics and postbiotics and probiotics. Everything is so in its infancy, that really, we're guessing on a lot of this and hopefully making moves towards the right types of guesses. But everyone's unique and so there's so much variability that comes with all of these things. So a question that I would have then is in lieu of your products being out on the market and these things really being available for mainstream, say I do have to take a antibiotic, a round of antibiotics, is the best way to repopulate my gut to do a high fiber probiotic and then add in some type of postbiotic to the mix?
Aubrey Levitt: Yeah, I think high fiber is always a good solution. That's going to help balance things out. What's interesting is a paper just came out that is on the fence about whether probiotics are actually beneficial when you take antibiotics or whether they can prevent your natural community from growing back. So that's a bit tricky. It's so disheartening when people are, when they're doing something and it works for a little bit and then it doesn't work is one thing I find really often like. The extreme of let's say you're eating all kale and then all of a sudden that becomes the thing that bothers you, which is so disheartening because you finally found something that works, or cutting out gluten or whatever. And I think it's because it's a lot of times these imbalances, they shift to whatever you're doing no longer works.
And I think on a spiritual level, there's something in me that really believes that that happens to keep us conscious potentially because once that becomes the answer, we start to check out again and not pay attention. And then on the medical side, I think that a lot of times we're not getting to the root of what the cause is and we're looking at even the diet and lifestyle become these quick fixes and it's not getting to the bottom of, because I truly believe that, and not if you're celiac, that is a different example, but a lot of times people should be going back to where you can eat a piece of cheese and it doesn't screw up your stomach. Right? And if we're that sensitive, something is imbalanced.
Andrea Wien: So if someone's listening to this and they're really interested in postbiotics and potentially starting to experiment with them and incorporate them into their lifestyle, are there certain ones, like you mentioned, butyric acid or some short chain fatty acids that maybe won't hurt, but could be helpful.
Aubrey Levitt: Yeah. So there are some supplements out there that are fermented. And so I would probably go and look at those. I think a lot of the science there is very in its infant stage, as you mentioned, I don't think they're really looking at it in terms of the lens of the microbiome. But they're still going to, by virtue that they're fermented, have a lot of these beneficial postbiotics in them. And then there's a lot more supplements popping up all the time with fermentation involved. So I would say a lot of those could be a good thing to explore. I'm hesitant to say too much about a lot of this because we're really diving deep now on the research. And as you mentioned, there's a lot we just don't know.
Andrea Wien: Well shifting gears a little bit, we've talked about antibiotics, but a lot of people don't realize that other drugs, there's a lot of other drugs out there besides antibiotics, and those can all impact the microbiome. Can you elaborate a little bit on how that works?
Aubrey Levitt: Yeah, that's very true. Actually, a study just came out that said 25% of non-antibiotic drugs disrupt the gut and its microbiome. So that's a huge number. And if you look at it, it makes sense because a lot of the drugs, one of the side effects will end up being GI upset or GI symptoms. And what's interesting about that is I think on one side it could be hurting your microbiome, but then with a lot of these drugs, you don't know if potentially the way it works is by disrupting the microbiome. So that adds a whole nother layer of complication, but that's actually something we're really excited about because the lab who put out that 25% of the non-antibiotic drugs disrupt the microbiome that just published that study, we're taking our product and we're going to put it into their model to see if it can protect the microbiome when all these other drugs are used.
Andrea Wien: I think you make a really interesting point too, that the microbiome can dictate how effective medications are. So I could be taking the exact same medication as you and yet because of the bacteria and fungi that might be in our guts, the way that that medication is metabolized and used in our body could be completely different, which that's a whole nother realm of thinking that we haven't really even begun to dive into.
Aubrey Levitt: Well, and that's the thing about why also might be important to get your microbiome back on track after taking antibiotic or other medication, because any way that we can start to standardize this, or understand what the microbiome is doing, as you mentioned, is going to really help us understand how these other medications are affecting us. Because right now, since everybody's microbiome is different, results of how they're taking these medications drastically differs. And then throw, you take a round of antibiotics into the loop and everything can alter again. So anything that stabilizes the community is going to be largely beneficial.
Andrea Wien: Yeah. And I think too, we're making the assumption that we know what the best microbiome is for everyone. And that's also not true. We have ideas of certain pathogenic strains or certain strains that might be beneficial, but we don't know without a shadow of a doubt that this is the ideal microbiome and this is the diversity that we want in there. And again, it could be very bio-individual. So I think there's also that whole level that science has to contend with as we're starting to think through how to think about this.
Aubrey Levitt: Yep. We definitely don't know. And that's another reason I think we're really interested in the postbiotics because different bacteria, different strains can create the same metabolites or the same strain can create different ones. And I think looking at what they create and how that then affects the body. So we can't leave out the fact of how that affects the body and that link in there, which we're still really trying to understand. And so tying into clinical outcomes is going to be the most important obviously, and how it affects different systems.
Andrea Wien: Are you guys thinking that postbiotics are more controlled in their reaction than probiotics might be. So you put X into a system, it has this effect, or is it really anyone's guess still?
Aubrey Levitt: We're hoping they're more controlled. So this idea that it's almost, I don't want to say it affects the gut, but then it also has a direct effect on the host. So it can be readily absorbed a lot of times more directly. And therefore, you just skip one layer of it having to then be processed by the gut and then taken in by the body. So we're hoping it can have a more, I don't want to say standardized, but it does have a more direct effect.
Andrea Wien: So on this show, we like to tell people how they can maybe take some of these things into their lives and make them more actionable. Is this something that we can even do yet with that, or is it really a wait and see, we need to do more research?
Aubrey Levitt: I mean, yeah, I think the very, as we've already discussed, including some fermented foods, is a great way to start incorporating this into your diet. A lot more fiber because you're going to have some microbiome in there that's going to be digesting these fibers. I'm always going to be a big fan of herbs, and when you do have tinctures and things that are extracted, there's going to be a lot of beneficial properties in there that are ready for your body to use. So all three of those things, I'm a big advocate of.
And I think the very fact that drugs have multiple effects is an important understanding that I think we need to all be taking into our life is, back in the day we used to think the antibiotics did one thing, were wonderful and didn't have any side effects. And now we are aware that not only do they affect our microbiome, but they could potentially affect the growth of antibiotic resistant genes. And I just think that awareness is actually overall very helpful so that we start to think that everything has pros and cons. There's not going to be a one size fits all and there's not going to be a one pill solution to things.
Andrea Wien: And I think that's just where the direction of medicine is going, in general. We spoke previously on a different call about how the microbiome could really start to be the bridge between these different modalities of medicine, between the allopathic and the more herbal side of things and everyone working together for the benefit of these little bugs that are in our bodies.
Aubrey Levitt: Yeah. It's almost like a great lens to look at things through. It's funny that you mentioned that because I actually have talked about that a lot as well, that it's interesting that it is bridging these different sides of medicine because everybody seems to agree on the microbiome. On one hand we know nothing, but at least we can all agree that it's important, and it affects many aspects of health. And I think that is one of the most exciting things that the microbiome brings into play, is that one, that medicine is more complicated than we ever imagined. And that's a great thing, even if it seems overwhelming, because I think it's going to bring in more complicated solutions, which is something that I guess would say alternative medicine has really usually been on the forefront of whereas allopathic medicine has not been as willing to embrace that. But now they're both understanding that.
Andrea Wien: Yeah, it's very cool to see and hopefully we'll continue to bring more collaboration versus being pushed apart. We did a great episode with Dr. Vincent Pedre too, who's one of the OGs of the functional medicine movement. And he talked a lot about how allopathic and functional medicine can really work together instead of being forces of opposition.
Aubrey Levitt: Wonderful. Yeah, I know his work. He's a great doctor.
Andrea Wien: So in terms of your favorite herbs, so even if they're not fermented, are there certain herbs that people can also try to start experimenting with or things that maybe someone is battling stress or fatigue or some of these other issues, are there herbal things that they can give a try?
Aubrey Levitt: Yeah. Actually I think I mentioned that when we were talking earlier. On the side, I'm actually doing a herbal company where you can go online and take a quiz to see what your gut type is and which herbs are best for your gut type. Because I think what's interesting about the gut and the microbiome is that it can go awry. The symptoms may be the same, but the root of the issue may be different. And so I worked with a herbalist and PhD scientist who break it down into five gut types and have formulas that match these different gut types. So that's something interesting, people wanted to try it out for us. It was just out of a passion of answering that question of what do you do? How do you know what's going on with your gut and what do you do about it right now?
Andrea Wien: Yeah. Where can people find that?
Aubrey Levitt: Yeah, it's called mycustomherbs.com and the quiz is up and the programs will actually be available in two weeks.
Andrea Wien: Aubrey, thank you so much for coming on. We're so excited to have you back when you guys get a little bit more in detail on your research and have more things to share, because this is obviously on the cutting edge of what we're learning about the microbiome. And I think there's so many things that you're going to learn and it's so exciting to be able to talk about them. So thank you so much. If people want to keep in touch with you and follow the research that you're doing, is there a way that they can do that?
Aubrey Levitt: Yeah. We have a website, the postbioticsplus.com and they can always send me an email at Aubrey@postbioticsplus.com as well, for anything else direct. But other than that, mycustomherbs as well. That's it for right now, but thank you for having me. Yeah, we're very excited. I mean, for us, the heart and core is really doing the research to see if we can get some real solutions and luckily attracted a team that that's their priority is how we can really benefit people and people's health overall.
Andrea Wien: Great. Well, thank you so much. We will link to all of that in our show notes and we hope to talk to you soon. Have a good one.
Aubrey Levitt: You too. Thanks so much.
Andrea Wien: Thanks so much for listening. If you haven't already, please go leave us a review on iTunes. It really helps the show to grow and keeps us smiling from ear to ear over here at BIOHM HQ. See you next time.
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